Halloween party ideas 2015

What is NPCI ?
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The NPCI was incorporated in December 2008 and the Certificate of Commencement of Business was issued in April 2009. National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI), an umbrella organisation for operating retail payments and settlement systems in India, is an initiative of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and Indian Banks’ Association (IBA) under the provisions of the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007, for creating a robust Payment & Settlement Infrastructure in India.

Considering the utility nature of the objects of NPCI, it has been incorporated as a “Not for Profit” Company under the provisions of Section 25 of Companies Act 1956 (now Section 8 of Companies Act 2013), with an intention to provide infrastructure to the entire Banking system in India for physical as well as electronic payment and settlement systems. The Company is focused on bringing innovations in the retail payment systems through the use of technology for achieving greater efficiency in operations and widening the reach of payment systems.

NPCI, during its journey for last over eight years, has made a significant impact on the retail payment systems in the country. Dedicated to the nation by the thenHon’ble President, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, endorsed by the Hon’ble Prime Minister, Shri NarendraModi, RuPay is now an established brand with complete portfolio of debit, credit, contactless and prepaid. Needless to mention, National Financial Switch, Cheque Truncation Systemand Aadhaar Enabled Payment System continues to be the flagship products of NPCI.
The key products of NPCI are:
National Financial Switch (NFS) which connects 1, 98, 953 ATMs of 449 banks (91 Member Banks, 358 Sub- Member)* [4]. Immediate Payment Service (IMPS) provided to 84 member banks*, with more than 8.49 crore MMID* (Mobile Money Identifier) issued, and crossed 10 million transactions*.
National Automated Clearing House (NACH) - has close to 400 banks* on board. Aadhaar Payments Bridge System (APBS) has more than 358 banks*. Cheque Truncation System (CTS) has fully migrated in 3 grids - southern, western & northern grids from MICR centres. Aadhaar-enabled payment system (AEPS) - has 36 member banks*. RuPay – Domestic Card Scheme- has issued over 20 crore cards* and enabled 10, 70, 000 PoS* terminals in the country.[5] The newest and most advanced addition to the NPCI revolution is the Unified Payments Interface (UPI) which has been launched on 11 April 2016.

RuPay PaySecure - Over 20 banks now offer this authentication mechanism to their RuPay cardholders.The new transaction flow of Card + OTP has infused more simplicity to cardholders. More than 70,000 merchants accept Rupay cards online.RuPay PaySecure is live on 10 acquiring banks which includes Union Bank of India, Kotak Mahindra Bank, Citi Bank, ICICI Bank, HDFC Bank, State Bank of India, IDBI Bank, IndusInd Bank, Bank of Baroda and Bank of India.
With Immediate Payment Service,India became the leading country in the world in real time payments in retail sector while Bharat Interface for Money/Unified Payments Interface has been termed as the revolutionary product in payment system. The other recently launched products Bharat Bill Pay, National Common Mobility Card and National Electronic Toll Collection are geared to bring revolution in small value electronic Payments.


During the last five years, the organization has grown multi-fold from 2 million transactions a day to 20 million transactions now. From a single service of switching of inter-bank ATM transactions, the range of services has grown to Cheque Clearing, Immediate Payments Service (24x7x365), Automated Clearing House, Electronic Benefit Transfer and a domestic card payment network named RuPay to provide an alternative to international card schemes. As on end-October 2015 over 220 Million Indians own RuPay cards.


Unified Payments Interface (UPI) / Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM)

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Unified Payments Interface (UPI) and Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM) as a proposition will make money transfers as easy as sending a text message in real-time. Go cashless – anywhere, anytime. A simple and secure way to make payments. 24 x7 Instant money transfer service.



User Benefits of BHIM.


Send Money: User can send money using a Virtual Payment Address (VPA), Account Number & IFSC, Aadhaar Number or QR code.
Request Money: User can collect money by entering Virtual Payment Address (VPA). Additionally through BHIM App, one can also transfer money using Mobile No. (Mobile No should be registered with BHIM or *99# and account should be linked)
Scan & Pay: User can pay by scanning the QR code through Scan & Pay & generate your QR option is also present.
Transactions: User can check transaction history and also pending UPI collect requests (if any) and approve or reject. User can also raise complaint for the declined transactions by clicking on Report issue in transactions.
Profile: User can view the static QR code and Payment addresses created or also share the QR code through various messenger applications like WhatsApp, Email etc. available on phone and download the QR code.
Bank Account: User can see the bank account linked with his/her BHIM App and  set/change the UPI PIN. User can also change the bank account linked with BHIM App by clicking Change account provided in Menu and can also check Balance of his/her linked Bank Account by clicking “REQUEST BALANCE
Language: Up to 8 regional languages (Tamil, Telugu, Bengali, Malayalam, Oriya, Gujarati, Kannada ,Hindi) available on BHIM to improve user experience.
Block User: Block/Spam users who are sending you collect requests from illicit sources.
Privacy: Allow a user to disable and enable mobilenumber@upi in the profile if a secondary VPA is created (QR for the disabled VPA is also disabled).


Benefits for banks:
1. Single click Two-Factor authentication
2. Universal Application for transaction
3. Leveraging existing infrastructure
4. Safer, Secured and Innovative
5. Payment basis Single/ Unique Identifier
6. Enable seamless merchant transactions
Benefits for end Customers:

1. Round the clock availability
2. Single Application for accessing different bank accounts
3. Use of UPI ID is more secure, no credential sharing
4. Single click authentication
5. Raise Complaint from Mobile App directly
Benefits for Merchants:
-  Seamless fund collection from customers - single identifiers
- No risk of storing customer’s card details
- Suitable for e-Com & m-Com transaction
- Resolves the COD collection problem
- Single click 2FA facility to the customer - seamless collect transaction
- In-App Payments (IAP)


Highlight.
Over 250 merchants comprising of Billers, Insurance companies, Lifestyle & Shopping, Travel & Entertainment, Education Institutes, Retail etc. accept UPI payments from their customers.
Find more about - BHIM Referral scheme - click here
For Faq about UPI / BHIM - Click Here


RuPay : -
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RuPay is India’s indigenous card scheme created by the National Payments Corporation of India.It was conceived to fulfill RBI’s vision to offer a domestic, open-loop, multilateral system which will allow all Indian banks and financial institutions in India to participate in electronic payments.It is made in India, for every Indian to take them towards a “less cash” society.and furthering the electronic payments system to make India a financial inclusive economy.

RuPay was launched on March 26, 2012.RuPay is well poised to support issuance of cards (Debit , Credit and Prepaid) by banks in India and thereby supporting the growth of retail electronic payments in India.

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RuPay is also working towards enhancing the acceptance ecosystem in the country. Further
RuPay is well poised to explore innovative payment opportunities such as Contactless to
facilitate and increase the efficiency of increasing the small ticket payments electronically.
RuPay – Key Highlights:
-  Standardized card scheme for all banks in India
-  380+ MnRupay cards issued by 800+ participating banks
-  Settlement in RBI accounts- no need for hedging Forex risks
-  Common network, switching & interchange fees across all banks
-  Switching Fees almost one-third that of International Card Schemes (ICS)
-  All regional rural banks & major state Co Op banks are offering cards
RuPay Benefits:
  • A robust card scheme designed to offer payment products with superior features and processes specifically designed to cater to diverse consumer needs in India. Within the existing debit card space, RuPay offers products for different segments including premium cards. Through expeditious product customizations, RuPay has in-built capability to offer tailor-made products for specific needs for the banking system. Pungrain, Kisan Card, Aadhaar based cards are examples.


  • RuPay enables a larger segment of the banking customers including that of Regional Rural Banks (RRB) and Co-operative Banks to participate in electronic payments through direct and sponsorship model (indirect) memberships provided to the banking sector.


  • It offers payment options across channels i.e. ATM / POS / e-commerce as well as Aadhaar based transactions at micro ATMs. RuPay has also tied up with various international network partner as a testimony of NPCI’s commitment to be a part of each and every Indian’s life by providing world class payment solutions. Our alliances provides RuPay valuable access to global acceptance footprint to deliver value to customers globally and vice versa.


  • Banks play a key role in defining the functioning of the scheme and are an integral part of the decision-making process owing to the collaborative approach taken by RuPay. All the committees constituted thereby are mandatorily represented by member banks.


  • The existing acceptance infrastructure of more than a million Point of Sale (PoS) in the country has already been enabled to accept RuPay cards, both magstripe as well as chip Cards.


  • RuPay cards have also been enabled for e-commerce transactions using the Pay Secure technology whereby the existing ATM PIN is used for authentication instead of the additional password.
Advantages:

  • All transactions under RuPay card scheme are processed within the country.
  • RuPay complies with the regulatory requirement for debit cards and the PIN has been made mandatory for performing any kind of transactions. This ensures a higher level of security to the customers. The approach has been endorsed by the RBI mandate on second factor authentication for all transactions on debit cards.
  • The scheme is inclusive and its rules and regulations are common across all participants.
  • RuPay pricing is simple, transparent and highly competitive.
  • RuPay, through a dedicated relationship mechanism, works very closely with banks in helping and hand-holding them through the onboarding exercise.
  • RuPay has a strategic tie-up with Discover Financial Services and Japan Credit Bureau to offer international acceptance globally.
    For Faq about Rupay E-Commerce - Click Here For Faq about Rupay Point of Sale (PoS) Acceptance - Click Here                                                                  For Faq about UPI / BHIM - Click Here                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ref;- NPCI, Rupay, Wikipedia

We had no idea they existed.

Scientists have identified the genomes of close to 8,000 microorganisms from samples taken out in the field – and around a third of them are distinct from any life forms known to science, adding a crazy 20 new branches to our tree of microscopic life.
Microorganisms fall into two categories, either bacteria or archaea, and make up the vast majority of known species on the planet. But only 1 to 2 percent of them can currently be cultured in a lab, so this study looked at real-world microbes collected from some of the most extreme places on Earth, finding a mother lode of undiscovered species.
The team from the University of Queensland in Australia analysed nearly 1,500 environmental samples already logged in a public database, using some serious computing power to make sense of the DNA sequences in each one and build up a picture of thousands of genomes.
"The real value of these genomes is that many are evolutionarily distinct from previously recovered genomes," says lead researcher Gene Tyson.
"They increase the evolutionary diversity spanned by both bacterial and archaeal genome trees by over 30 per cent, and are the first representatives within 17 bacterial and three archaeal phyla."
When you consider that all animals with a backbone belong to one single phylum, or branch on the tree of life, you can see how significant the new discoveries are.
The process used by the researchers is a relatively new approach known as metagenomics, or the study of genetic material in environmental rather than cultured samples. With modern-day computing techniques, researchers can piece together the DNA sequences and identify the microbes present.
To add to the 80,000 genomes currently logged and recorded, the team found 7,280 bacterial and 623 archaeal genomes that met their quality standards for completeness.
Take, for example Uncultured Bacterial Phylum 9 – the first genomic representatives of the Terra bacteria candidate phylum SHA-109, it was isolated from baboon faeces, palm oil effluent, and other substances.
Or there's Uncultured Archaeal Phylum 2, the first representative from the Marine Hydrothermal Vent Group, and home to genomes collected from the depths of the oceans and hydrothermal vents.
The next step is to look for genes within the new genomes that resemble genes we've seen before, which could give us clues about what these microbes are like and how they act. Some of them are so different to existing genomes, though, that it could take some time.
Further down the line, this study and others like it could lead to new types of antibiotics, which are often discovered in bacteria and fungi. The research might also be used to develop new chemicals and materials for industrial use.
On top of that, uncovering so much more about the types of life on the planet can help in the study of where we all come from in the first place, and how life evolved from these tiniest of critters.
"All the questions we have about ancient evolutionary events – what our last common ancestor looked like, when methane metabolism arose, when oxygen-producing organisms evolved – they really benefit from having more genomes to look at and a more detailed tree," one of the researchers, Donovan Parks, told Alice Klein at New Scientist.
What's certain is there's a lot more out there to find. Some experts think we've only found a very small percentage of the trillions of microbial species living on Earth, though most of those will fill in gaps in existing phyla rather than needing new ones.
As the researchers point out, genome-spotting tools are continually improving, and they're confident that even more genomes can be found in the samples they worked with.
"Constructing a comprehensive genomic repository of microbial diversity lays the foundation for furthering our understanding of the role of microorganisms in critical biogeochemical and industrial processes," says Parks.
The research has been published in Nature Microbiology.


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