Halloween party ideas 2015

In an incredible world first, astrophysicists detected multiple planets in another galaxy earlier this year, ranging from masses as small as the Moon to ones as great as Jupiter.
The technique, first predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity, has been used to find exoplanets within Milky Way, and it's the only known way of finding the smallest and most distant planets, thousands of light-years from Earth.
As a planet orbits a star, the gravitational field of the system can bend the light of a distant star behind it.
We know what this looks like when it's just two stars, so when a planet enters the mix, it creates a further disturbance in the light that reaches us - a recognisable signature for the planet.
So far, 53 exoplanets within the Milky Way have been detected using this method. To find planets farther afield, though, something a little bit more powerful than a single star was required.
Oklahoma University astronomers Xinyu Dai and Eduardo Guerras studied a quasar 6 billion light-years away called RX J1131-1231, one of the best gravitationally lensed quasars in the sky.
Using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray observatory, the researchers found that there were peculiar line energy shifts in the quasar's light that could only be explained by planets in the galaxy lensing the quasar.
It turned out to be around 2,000 unbound planets with masses ranging between the Moon and Jupiter, between the galaxy's stars.
"We are very excited about this discovery. This is the first time anyone has discovered planets outside our galaxy," Dai said.
Of course, we haven't seen the planets directly, and are unlikely to in the lifetime of anyone alive today. But being able to detect them at all is an incredible testament to the power of microlensing, not to mention being evidence that there are planets in other galaxies.
Of course, common sense would dictate that planets are out there - but evidence is always nice.
"This galaxy is located 3.8 billion light years away, and there is not the slightest chance of observing these planets directly, not even with the best telescope one can imagine in a science fiction scenario. 
"However, we are able to study them, unveil their presence and even have an idea of their masses. This is very cool science."
The research was published in The Astrophysical Journal.

Volcanoes are regarded as a symbol of nature’s fury – they are not just majestic in appearance, they are equally dangerous.
One of the incidents that demonstrated the might of volcanoes is the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in the year 79 AD. It is still held as one of the most catastrophic and damaging eruptions to date. The eruption caused the destruction of not only the whole city of Pompeii and Hernaculum, but also led to a large loss of live.
There are almost 1500 active volcanoes on Earth, and this is includes only the ones that are on the surface of the Earth. There are many more underwater as well, especially around the Pacific Ring of Fire. Out of these, almost 100 are known worldwide.
Want to know which are the top 10 active volcanoes in the world? Here they are!
Caution: Lava ahead!
  1. Mauna Loa, Hawaii
The Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii is not only the most active, but also the biggest volcano on Earth. It is a popular tourist spot and is also part of various scientific studies. It has been erupting for 700,000 years now continuously. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. The volcano has an extensive network of lava flow, which poses a hazard to the communities that are living nearby. In 1950, an entire village was destroyed by lava.
2. Eyjafjallajokull, Iceland
This volcano is part of the several smaller ice caps of Iceland. I’s eruption in 2010 made the world sit back and take note, when the ash plume from the eruption led to an air travel disruption across Europe and North America. As of 2011, the volcano is considered to be dormant.
3.Mount Vesuvius, Italy
The location of this volcano is what makes this volcano dangerous. Mount Vesuvius is located just 9 kms off the city of Naples, making it the most densely populated volcanic region in the world. Like mentioned before, it is also known for causing what is perhaps, the most destructive volcanic eruption in 79 AD, when it buried Pompeii and Hernaculum under a pile of ash and lava. It is known to have an eruption cycle of 20 years.
4. Mount Nyiragongo, Congo
This active volcano has the largest lava lake that spans 2 km wide. It is located in Virunga National Park in Congo. Along with another volcano, it is said to be responsible for 40% of Africa’s volcanic eruptions. It poses a significant threat to the surrounding communities as it carries a large lake of fluid lava.
5. Taal Volcano, Phillipines
The Taal Volcano is located on an island near Taal Lake. It is 30 miles off Manila, and has erupted 33 times since 1572. There has been a considerable casualty rate during eruptions and hence viewing is now allowed only from a distance.
6. Mount Merapi, Indonesia
This volcano is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has produced more lava flow than any other volcano in the world. It has been erupting regularly since 1548. It is believed that it’s eruptions had led to the destruction of the Kingdom of Mataram. It is just a few miles off the city of Yogyakarta, and is hence a significant hazard for its inhabitants. An eruption in 2010 has killed almost 400 people and left many more homeless.
7.Galeras, Colombia
Galeras is located in Colombia, near the border with Ecuador. It has been erupting for a million years now. Its first eruption  recorded was in 1580 and has been erupting frequently since. It poses a threat to the nearby city of Pasto that lies below its eastern slope. It was thought to have gone dormant in 1978, but erupted later in just 10 years i.e.1988. During a Decade Volcano Conference held in 1993, its surprise eruption killed 6 scientists and some tourists. It has been erupting every year since 2000, causing tremors in nearby areas.
8.Sakurajima, Japan
Sakurajima is an active volcano that was an island, before lava flow connected it to Osumi Peninsula in Japan. It has been erupting each year since 1955. It is a hazard to the city of Kagoshima, which lies at the foot of the mountain. It’s most recent eruption in 2009 caused thousands of deaths. The government has since, built various volcano shelters and camps in nearby areas for people to take refuge. It is also known as the ‘Vesuvius of the East’.
9. Santa Maria, Guatemala
One of the most active volcano since the 20th century, the Santa Maria has had numerous volcanic eruptions within the last 10 decades. It is 130 kilometers off the city of Guatemala, and is located in the Pacific Ring of Fire.  Santa Maria has a crater which was formed after an explosion that occurred in 1902. The heavy deposits of magma from eruptions, led to the creation of a heavy dome complex named as Sanitaguito. The clash of the Cocos Plate and Caribbean Plate leads to the volcanic eruptions. The latest eruption occurred in March of 2011.
10. Ulawun, Papua New Guinea
Ulawun is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. It has had 22 major eruptions that have been recorded since the 1700s. Minor eruptions and tremors occur regularly. The main hazard about the volcano is its structural integrity. If an incident of a major collapse occurs, the consequential eruption could lead to the destruction of hundreds of square kilometers of land. Of all the eruptions that have taken place, the one with the most damage was the one that occurred in the year of 1980. The eruption ejected ash and plume up to 18 kms and caused widespread destruction up to an area of 20 sq km. The last volcanic eruption occurred in the year of 2010.

And there it is – the top ten active volcanoes of the world! From Hawaii to Philippines, they’re everywhere, looming over like an uncontrollable power. These majestic yet deadly mounts of fury can be enticing to the eye. Once considered a symbol of God’s wrath, they truly stand testament to the fury of Nature, and the mortality of Man. Spooky right? We think so too.

Deep inside the diffuse haze of fuel and dirt that surround the smallest galaxies, darkish count may be
clumping into bloodless droplets referred to as 'Bose stars'.
Of route, we do not even recognize what the mysterious darkish matter is, not to mention have evidence
of invisible 'stars'. but if modern assumptions pan out, a new mathematical version suggests darkish
remember might have some atypical interactions.
The version became proposed by means of a group of Russian physicists who considered the manner
hypothetical particles of darkish remember would possibly aggregate inside the smallest of galactic halos.
"In our paintings, we simulated the movement of a quantum gasoline of light, gravitationally interacting
dark count particles," says physicist Dmitry Levkovfrom the Institute for Nuclear studies of the Russian
Academy of Sciences.
round eighty percent of the mass inside the Universe is product of something we can't seem to detect.
anything it is, it would not have interaction with normal depend through the usual channels, along with
through replacing photons through the electromagnetic area.
The handiest signal of its presence is the delivered oomph it provides to the clumping of galaxies. still,
it is no small element– this unseen gravitational tax has already been mapped out in element, supplying
us with key information on its nature.
thanks to its clean affinity for galaxies, we are able to count on the rate of the stuff making up dark rely
isn't always speedy sufficient to shoot off into the voids of space. It must be incredibly sluggish moving.
One candidate for this slow darkish count is a hypothetical particle called an axion. they may be a kind
of boson – not not like the photon – that become proposed as an answer for every other perplexing
paradox in quantum physics.
every other alternative is fuzzy darkish count number. it's but every other kind of boson, invented as a
option to a dilemma in astrophysics concerning the distribution of dark remember in galactic haloes.
Neither of those bespoke bosons were proven to exist. however if at least certainly one of them became
out to be actual, below some occasions they could do a little thrilling things.
The authors claim the model is the primary to take a look at the kinetics of one of these darkish remember
Bose-Einstein condensate simply forming.
Bose-Einstein condensates are the anonymous rallies of quantum debris. when the temperature drops
to simply above absolute 0, debris cease blending and lose their person identities to appearance eerily
the identical.
previous attempts have stuck to asking what takes place when the bosons have already come together,
along with in an little one Universe. In this case, they commenced with a jumble of interacting bosons.
"We began from a virialized kingdom with maximal mixing, that is type of opposite to the Bose-Einstein
condensate," says Levkov.
"After a totally lengthy length, a 100,000 times longer than the time wished for a particle to go the
simulation extent, the particles spontaneously shaped a condensate, which immediately formed itself
right into a round droplet, a Bose big name, beneath the impact of gravity."
In effect, a cloud of 'dark' bosons turns into the same particle. not handiest that, the physicists have
worked out this cloud can pull together under gravitational results to form a globe – a Bose 'star'.
The situations for those hypothetical items would want to be fairly precise, consisting of focused inside
the center of the rather small halo surrounding a dwarf galaxy. or even then, while it should take place
within the life of the Universe, it might nevertheless be a slow method.
these varieties of 'what if?' scenarios would possibly sound a bit sci-fi, however they help us enhance
limitations on where to seek for clues in this whole dark depend mystery.
"the next apparent step is to expect the number of the Bose stars inside the Universe and calculate
their mass in fashion with mild darkish matter," says Levkov.
someday we will ultimately have a draw close on the fundamental nature of this ghostly mass.
whilst we do, we are almost surely going to locate a few captivating new systems hiding in undeniable view a few of the stars.
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