Halloween party ideas 2015

Well, this sure is one parade that's getting rained out of existence. A spectacular astronomical event that had been predicted for 2022 now isn't going to happen after all.

Early in 2017, scientists forecast the collision of two stars in the constellation Cygnus – something that would result in a rare and wonderful phenomenon visible to the naked eye. And the news spread like wildfire.

The two stars, located a mere 1,800 light-years from Earth, are currently locked in a spiralling death dance. According to the researchers, in the year 2022 – just a few short years away – they were going to collide.

And it wasn't just going to be a small blip in the night sky. When binary star system KIC 9832227 finally merged, it was going to produce a luminous red nova - increasing in brightness 10,000-fold, which would be visible from Earth for some time.

Now, though, that prediction has been nixed.

*Sad trombone*

A team of researchers led by astronomer Quentin Socia at San Diego State University has meticulously pored over the mathematics, and come up with a different result.

And the original researcher - astronomer Larry Molnar from Calvin College - has agreed with this new finding.

"Good science makes testable predictions," Molnar said.

"There have been a few other papers that have tried to poke at our project, and we've been able to poke back - criticisms that just don't fly.  But this one does fly, and I think they have a good point. This illustrates how science can be self-correcting."

The problem was found to be with the data Molnar and his team used to make the prediction.

KIC 9832227 is a fascinating system. The two stars are locked in with each other so tightly that they take just 11 hours to perform one full orbit. And they're so close that they actually share parts of their atmospheres, what is known as a contact binary.

They're also an eclipsing binary, oriented in just the right way that, as they orbit, they eclipse each other from our point of view here on Earth.

The prediction was based on the timings of minimum light – that is, the point at mid-eclipse in which the light from the binary system is at its lowest – from all available sources.

Molnar and his team used Calvin Observatory data between 2013 and 2016. Between 2007 and 2013, they used data from other observatories. There was a long gap in the data before 2007, but in 1999, one observation had been taken as part of the Northern Sky Variability Survey.

Socia and his team got their hands on previously unpublished archival data from 2003, taken as part of the NASA Ames Vulcan Project. And they found that the eclipses were occurring half an hour later than predicted by Molnar's merger hypothesis.

They re-ran the numbers, and the timings after 2007 checked out. But that one 1999 datapoint was awry - a full hour later than it was supposed to be.

The culprit? A typo.

Yep. In the paper that originally described the 1999 data, published in 2004, a typo resulted in the misrepresentation of the timing of the eclipse by 12 hours. This error was carried into Molnar's team's calculations.

Interestingly, the typo didn't occur in the article's preprint (it's the mjd, or Modified Julian Date, value in Table 6).

The eclipse absolutely couldn't have occurred at the time the published paper stated, either. Socia calculated where KIC 9832227 would have been at that specific time. It would have been below the horizon. The telescope would not have been been able to see it.

This isn't to say that, at some point in the future, KIC 9832227 isn't going to go kaboom; but that point isn't going to be in 2022.

And yes, we're a bit deflated about it; but ultimately, while science can giveth, its ability to taketh away is equally important.

"This is arguably the most important part of the scientific process. Knowledge advances the most when bold predictions are made, and people question and test those predictions," Socia said.

"Often the most exciting discoveries happen when our expectations are not met. This is a good example of how scientists from different parts of the world can work together to better understand how our universe works, bringing with them new pieces to the puzzle."

So it's not going to be KIC 9832227. But eventually a binary star is going to collide, and there are now a lot of eyes out there looking for it.

"The authors of the manuscript don't question our fundamental premise, which is to say 'this is something that you should be looking for, this is something that can be found,'" Molnar said.

"It's actually because they agree with that fundamental premise that they dug deeper. And so the search for an impending stellar merger continues."

The research has been published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.


 

It's the largest hot desert in the world: the Sahara, a blistering landscape of sand, heat, and deadly dryness that swallows 10 nations and is growing bigger all the time.
Because of its searing, sunny conditions, numerous energy projects are already seeking to capitalise on the immense solar potential of the Sahara.
But new research shows an amazing, unprecedented effect of these efforts: solar and wind farms could actually bring rainfall and greenery back to the desert.
"We found that the large-scale installation of solar and wind farms can bring more rainfall and promote vegetation growth in these regions," says one of the researchers, atmospheric scientist Eugenia Kalnay from the University of Maryland.
"The rainfall increase is a consequence of complex land-atmosphere interactions that occur because solar panels and wind turbines create rougher and darker land surfaces."
Scientists already knew that wind and solar farms produced localised effects on things like heat and humidity in the regions they're installed, but nobody knew quite how these effects would play out if you were to build a massive renewable energy complex in the Sahara desert.
The reasons the Sahara is desirable for such a facility are numerous. The desert has a great natural supply of solar and wind energy, it's sparsely populated, and the landscape isn't widely used for other things humans need, like agriculture.
Plus, along with the milder, transitional Sahel region to the desert's south, the Sahara is located close to Europe and the Middle East – which have huge energy demands – and of course to sub-Saharan Africa, whose energy needs are projected to grow in the future.
But if we deployed wind turbines and solar panels across the Sahara and the Sahel, it wouldn't just be a benefit for renewable energy – first-of-its-kind modelling suggests the environment itself would begin to be transformed by the introduction of turbine blades and solar panels.
"Our model results show that large-scale solar and wind farms in the Sahara would more than double the precipitation in the Sahara, and the most substantial increase occurs in the Sahel, where the magnitude of rainfall increase is between ~200 and ~500 mm per year," says first author of the study Yan Li, who began the research at Maryland and is now at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
"As a result, vegetation cover fraction increases by about 20 percent."
214 sahara desert rain solar wind green vegetation 1(Eviatar Bach)
These effects arise for a couple of reasons. Firstly, wind turbines enhance vertical mixing of heat in the atmosphere, pushing higher, warmer air down to the surface and increasing land surface friction, and ultimately leading to greater likelihood of precipitation.
"This increase in precipitation, in turn, leads to an increase in vegetation cover, creating a positive feedback loop," Li explains.
At the same time, solar panels, which soak up the Sun's rays, reduce what's called surface albedo – the amount of light reflectance at the surface – which also ends up increasing precipitation.
It wouldn't be easy to build this kind of hypothetical infrastructure, of course – we're talking a solar farm roughly the size of China or the United States, punctuated by giant turbines covering about 20 percent of the Sahara.
But if we could pull such an epic feat off, we wouldn't just be kickstarting a gradual greening of the Sahara desert – we'd also completely kick our addiction to fossil fuels, with the complex delivering about 82 terawatts of electrical power annually, the team calculates.
"In 2017, the global energy demand was only 18 terawatts, so this is obviously much more energy than is currently needed worldwide," Li says.
Given everything we know about what fossil fuels are doing to the planet, the research offers a little glimpse of how alternative energy technologies could reveal surprising environmental advantages we're not yet aware of.
"In addition to avoiding anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels and the resulting warming, wind and solar energy could have other unexpected beneficial climate impacts when deployed at a large scale in the Sahara, where conditions are especially favourable for these impacts," the team writes in their paper.
With the power surplus provided by such a facility, the researchers say you could help realise other difficult, large-scale environmental projects, such as desalination of seawater and transporting it to regions that suffer from freshwater scarcity, in turn bolstering health, food production, and even biodiversity.
Of course, this is all just based upon a simulation for now, and a hypothetical vision that would be difficult to realise in reality. But it's the right kind of idea to get this planet back on track – a dream worth thinking about after you wake up.
"The Sahara has been expanding for some decades, and solar and wind farms might help stop the expansion of this arid region," says air quality researcher Russ Dickerson from the University of Maryland, who wasn't involved with the study.

"This looks like a win-win to me."

Apple has a new deal for US customers who haven’t signed up for iCloud yet. 9to5Macspotted a Reddit thread that pointed to the deal: new subscribers on the four big US carriers can get 200GB free for two months.

The deal appears to be only be available in the US for customers who haven’t signed up for the service yet. As to be expected, there’s some fine print: those customers will be charged $2.99 a month after that two month window.

 
apple_storage_200gb

As we noted back in May, it’s certainly an obvious ploy on Apple’s part to get customers signed up for its services, and it’s a bit irritating, especially if you’ve already plunked down hundreds of dollars for a new device. Plus, Apple already offers 5GB for free for users, and it introduced a free month at the 50GB, 200GB and 2TB levels to new subscribers earlier this year.

But while this isn’t a huge advance over those other deals, having that extra month could be that extra bit of enticement that you might need, especially if iCloud is something that you’ve been eyeing.


Do you suffer from joint pain, heart problems, stress, depression, or obesity? Then, try walking to beat all your health problems. Because according to the journal Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, walking helps reduce the risk of all chronic diseases . In fact, most health professionals prefer walking over running as it is a low-impact exercise that goes easy on your heart and joints. Here is the 20 health benefits of walking daily and get going, doesn’t matter if you are 8 or 80!
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XR4J2VjBj7g
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XR4J2VjBj7g
1. Improves Heart Health

Walking helps to improve your heart health. Irish scientists have reported that walking is the best exercise for sedentary individuals, especially adults, to reduce the risk of heart and cardiovascular diseases . In another study published in the Journal of American Geriatrics Society, scientists confirmed that men and women of 65 years of age or older, who walked for at least 4 hours every week, were at less risk of cardiovascular disease . So, make sure to walk for 4 hours a week to keep heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and stroke at bay.

2. Help Weight Loss
Walking is a great exercise and helps you lose weight. American scientists designed an experiment where obese patients walked together (a concept known as the ‘walking bus’) to their destinations in and around the city. After 8 weeks, their weight was checked, and more than 50% of the participants lost an average of 5 pounds . Therefore, it might be a good idea to start walking to and from your nearby destinations, instead of driving your car.

3. Regulates Blood Pressure

Walking can also help lower blood pressure. Researchers from Wakayama Medical College, Japan conducted an experiment on individuals with mild hypertension, where 83 participants walked 10,000 steps per day for 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, they showed a significant drop in blood pressure and increased stamina . Even if you are unable to complete 10,000 steps per day, you should walk for at least 60 minutes every day to keep your blood pressure levels in check.

4. Fights Cancer
Cancer has claimed over a million lives. A sedentary lifestyle is one of the causes of cancer, and this is where walking every day can help you. Scientists have found that walking can help in weight loss, thereby reducing the risk of cancer. Walking has been found to be helpful for those undergoing cancer treatment by reducing the side effects of chemotherapy . It can also lower the risk of breast cancer.

5. Improves Circulation

Believe it or not, walking can actually increase your intelligence. Walking helps to supply the brain with the required amounts of oxygen and glucose, which helps it function better. It also decreases the levels of LDL cholesterol, which clogs arteries, and hence reduces the risk of stroke (7). So, walking can help improve blood circulation and the brain and cellular functions.

6. Reduces Risk Of Diabetes
A sedentary lifestyle has led to an exponential growth of one of the most common diseases – diabetes. Scientists recommend 3,000 to 7,500 steps a day to treat type 2 diabetes and suggest that you sit less and be more active . Walking every day can help control the blood sugar levels, which, in turn, can help you prevent type 2 diabetes.

7. Strengthens Bones

Your bones tend to become weaker as you age. But the good news is you can strengthen your bones by walking regularly. This low-impact exercise prevents loss of bone density, thereby reducing the risk of osteoporosis, fracture, and injury. Since bones determine our framework, stronger and healthier bones help to improve posture, stamina, and balance . Walking can also prevent arthritis and reduce the accompanying pain.

8. Strengthens Muscles
Like bones, you can also experience loss of muscles as you age. Here too, walking can help you by strengthening and toning your muscles and preventing muscle loss. Regular walking can strengthen your leg and back muscles .

9. Improves Digestion

Improper digestion can lead to gastrointestinal discomfort, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, and even colon cancer. Therefore, it is very important that you keep your digestive system healthy. Apart from maintaining good food habits and drinking water, you should also walk to improve digestion. Walking after meals is great. It helps you reduce weight and also supports your digestive system.

10. Boosts Immune Function
Your body’s immune system should function properly at all times to prevent infections, diseases, and death. Walking is a great way to boost your immunity. Walking at least 30 minutes a day can help bolster the activities of the immune cells, namely, the B-cells, T-cells, and the natural killer cells . It helps release the WBCs at a faster rate, thereby allowing your body to heal quickly .

11. Prevents Dementia

Dementia is a neurological condition characterized by gradual loss of memory and cognitive functions. It can eventually make you unable to perform day-to-day functions and totally dependent on others. Walking regularly at a moderate pace can help prevent dementia, improve memory, and build confidence in older individuals .

12. Increases Lung Capacity
Walking can also increase your lung capacity. When you walk, you breathe in more oxygen as compared to when you are stationary. This exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide at a larger volume can help increase your lung capacity, thereby increasing your stamina and exercise performance . The best part is, you don’t even have to run. A medium-paced 60-minute walk (with breaks, of course!) can do the trick.

13. Delays Aging

A study conducted with 17,000 Harvard graduates showed that students who walked for at least 30 minutes every day lived longer than those who were sedentary . Walking may or may not activate the telomerase enzyme, which is responsible for maintaining DNA integrity, an important factor in aging, but it helps prevent all age-related problems .

14. Helps Produce Vitamin D
Walking in the morning is a great opportunity for your body to produce vitamin D. Vitamin D is essential for bone strength and it prevents cancer, multiple sclerosis, and diabetes type 1. So, it is very important that you get at least 10-15 minutes of morning sun exposure, and walking is the best way to do so.

15. Reduces Stress

Walking can help reduce the stress levels by improving circulation, which, in turn, provides nutrients and oxygen to the cells. It also stimulates the nervous system receptors and decreases the production of the stress hormones . Breathing in and out while walking also helps to breathe out the tension.

16. Uplifts Mood
Several scientific studies have proven that physical activity can help prevent depression. Walking is highly recommended by physicians and psychiatrists to help uplift mood. So, if you are feeling depressed or sad, you should just take a walk and get some fresh air to feel better .

17. Improves Memory

Japanese scientists have found that walking can help improve the memory of older patients . Physical exercise helps to increase the size of hippocampus while a sedentary lifestyle shrinks the hippocampus, leading to memory loss . So, walk every day to give your memory power a serious boost.

18. Increases Productivity
Walking regularly can also make you more active and energetic. This, in turn, can increase your productivity. Be it at school or work, your memory, agility, and your reaction to different stimuli will significantly change for the better.

19. Increases Your Creativity

Walking also helps to increase your creativity. It helps calm your nerves and relaxes your brain. When you walk, you don’t have the pressure of a deadline or meeting a certain expectation. This helps your brain to think strategically and in a more sorted way. So, if you are stuck with a problem, take a walk!

20. Builds Social Support
Walking can help you build social support and make new friends who will encourage you to walk every day. You will look forward to meeting them. Also, you can walk to support a social cause. At the end of the day, you will be filled with positive energy and peace.
It is clear from this list that walking can improve your health in many ways, but what preparations do you need to make if you want to start walking? Explained in the next section.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XR4J2VjBj7g

 History (and sometimes, unfortunately, current events) shows us just how easily national borders can change, but we still like to think that they are permanent fixtures. These photos of different national borders around the world show you how both friendly and hostile nations like to fence off their turf.

Borders will often say much about countries' relationships. The borders between friendly nations, especially those in the European Union's Schengen zone, can seem almost non-existent, marked by no more than a line or a road sign. Other borders are delineated by natural markers like rivers, or by man-made markers, like guard posts and demilitarized zones.
1, Zipline Connects Spain And Portugal Border

The Portugal–Spain border is the international boundary between Portugal and Spain. Referred to as "la Raya" in Spanish and "A Raia" in Portuguese (the stripe), the current demarcation is almost identical to that defined in 1297 by the Treaty of Alcañices. It is one of the oldest borders in the world. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 km (754 miles) long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union.











The border is not defined for 18 km (11 miles) between the Caia river and Ribeira de Cuncos, because of the disputed status of Olivenza, which has been disputed between the two countries for two hundred years.
A microstate existed previously on the border called Couto Misto.

2 USA And Mexico Border

The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean to the west and Gulf of Mexico to the east. The border traverses a variety of terrains, ranging from major urban areas to uninhabitable deserts. Approximately 350 million legal crossings occur annually,and is the most frequently crossed border in the world.















The total length of the continental border is 1,954 miles (3,145 km). From the Gulf of Mexico, it follows the course of the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte) to the border crossing at Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, and El Paso, Texas. Westward from El Paso–Juárez, it crosses vast tracts of the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts to the Colorado River Delta and San Diego–Tijuana, before reaching the Pacific Ocean.
3 United States  Canada Border

The Canada–United States border, officially known as the International Boundary, is the longest international border in the world between two countries. It is shared between Canada and the United States, the second- and fourth largest countries by area, respectively. The terrestrial boundary (including portions of maritime boundaries in the Great Lakes, and on the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic coasts) is 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi) long, of which 2,475 kilometres (1,538 mi) is Canada's border with Alaska.









4 Slovakia, Austria and Hungary Meet up Border

A pillar marks the tripoint of the Austrian, Hungarian, and Slovak borders. It bears the letters of each country marking its sides. At the location, you also find sculptures memorating the time of the Iron Curtain, with parts of the barbed wire and border signs still in place.

The border between these three countries has witnessed a lot of history. At one time in history, all three countries were a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Like the border in Devín, more recent history has been more dramatic. Firstly, the fall of the Soviet Union made it possible for normal people to cross these borders – for the first time in decades. The second big change was the entry of Hungary and Slovakia into the European Union in 2004. Since then all three countries have been members of the Schengen Area. Because of this, you can walk across these borders without any border control agents asking to see your passport. How many tripoints around the world has the possibility to walk around the point itself?














The tripoint is near the Slovak village of Čunovo, as well as the Hungarian village of Rajka and the Austrian village of Deutsch Jahrndorf. Located around 20 kilometers south of the center of Bratislava, the tripoint is easiest accessed with a bike or car. Another option is to take the local buses to the village of Rajka, from where the tripoint is just a short walk away.
5 Norway–Sweden border

The Norway–Sweden border is a 1,630-kilometre (1,010 mi) long land national border,and the longest border for both Norway and Sweden.
The border was changed several times because of war. Before 1645, Jämtland, Härjedalen, Idre/Särna parish, and Bohuslän belonged to Norway. The border changes were defined in the Treaty of Brömsebro (1645), the Treaty of Roskilde (1658) and the Treaty of Copenhagen (1660).

In 1751 a treaty was signed in Strömstad, defining the border based on field investigations and negotiations done 1738–1751. The border was based on knowledge among local people, mainly which farm belonged to which parish and which parish to which diocese. In the unpopulated mountains, the border mainly followed the water divide. There were disagreements on the parishes of Särna, Idre, Lierne, Kautokeino and Karasjok, which had to be solved by give-and-take. Based on that, in 1752–1765 border cairns were erected between Norway and Sweden including Finland, which mostly remain today.










After the Treaty of Kiel and the Convention of Moss (1814) the union between Sweden and Norway was established, and the Norway–Sweden border became a border between two union partners. In the Negotiations in Karlstad which led up to the dissolution of the union in 1905, Norway was obliged to tear down several fortresses along the border.
During World War II, when Norway was occupied by Germany and Sweden was neutral, many Norwegians became refugees and were transported or fled over the border. The regulation of Norwegian immigrants was strict between 1940 and 1941; several would-be-refugees were declined.
6 Poland And Ukraine border

Poland–Ukraine border is the state border between Poland and Ukraine. It has a total length of 535 km (332 mi) or 529 km (329 mi)
A Poland-Ukraine border first formed, briefly, in the aftermath of the Polish-Ukrainian War in 1919. The Treaty of Warsaw of 1920 divided the disputed territories in Poland's favor along the Zbruch River. Next year, however, Ukraine lost its independence to the Soviet Union, and its remaining territories were split between Poland and the Ukrainian SSR in the Peace of Riga.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union into a number of post-Soviet states transformed the Poland-Soviet border into the chain of Poland-Russia, Poland-Lithuania, Poland-Belarus and Poland-Ukraine borders. Poland and Ukraine have confirmed the border on 18 May 1992.It is the longest of Polish eastern borders.
The Poland-Ukraine border is the most often crossed eastern border of the EU.










Most of the border traffic is generated by Ukrainian citizens. Petty trade and shopping tourism were and still are driving much of the traffic, with migration for labor purposes being another significant factor.
The border is heavily policed, as it is a major smuggling route into EU, both for goods and for illegal immigration.
Approximately 8 million people live in the border area, roughly equally divided between Poland and Ukraine.
7 Border between The Netherlands and Belgium
The Belgium–Netherlands border separates Belgium and the Netherlands and is 450 km long.
Belgium and the Netherlands are part of the Schengen Area. This means there are no permanent border controls at this border.
On the Belgian side, the border is shared by four Flemish provinces (out of the five in the Flemish Region). From west West Flanders, East Flanders, Antwerp and Limburg (Belgium). A small part is shared by the Walloon province of Liège, which also includes the German-speaking East Cantons. At the Dutch side, the border is shared by three provinces: Zeeland, North Brabant and Limburg.

















Between Belgian and Dutch Limburg, the border is mostly formed by the Meuse (Maas) river. The other parts of the border is mostly on land. The city of Baarle-Hertog forms a Belgian exclave in Netherlands. The border is complicated there, with Dutch exclaves inside it.
The eastern end point is the tripoint (together with Germany) at Vaalserberg.
8 Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay border
The Triple Frontier (Spanish: La Triple Frontera, Portuguese: Tríplice Fronteira) is a tri-border area along the junction of Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil, where the Iguazú and Paraná rivers converge. Near the confluence are the cities of Ciudad del Este (Paraguay); Puerto Iguazú (Argentina) and Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil). This area is near Iguazú Falls and the Itaipú hydroelectric plant.
The Triple Frontier is an important tourist area, within the touristic subregion of the Región de las Aguas Grandes. Visitors can see the Tancredo Neves bridge, which connects the Argentine city of Puerto Iguazú and its Brazilian neighbor, Foz do Iguaçu. At the convergence of the borders, each of the three bordering countries has erected an obelisk, painted in the national colors of the country in which it is located. All three countries can be seen from each of the obelisks.











The Guarani Aquifer is arguably the biggest reservoir of fresh, potable water in the world—right under Triple Border soil (Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay). The majority (71%) of its 1.2 million square kilometers lies in Brazil.
9 France – Switzerland – Germany (in Basel)
The FranceSwitzerland border is 572 km long. Its modern boundaries are mostly the product of the Congress of Vienna of 1815, with the accession of Geneva, Neuchatel and Valais to the Swiss Confederation, but it has since been modified in detail, for the last time (as of 2013) in 2002.

The tripoint where it meets the Swiss-German and Franco-German borders is in the river Rhine (at 47.5898°N 7.5890°E) at Basel. A monument has been built near it, known as the Dreiländereck. Its other end is at the tripoint with the French-Italian and Swiss-Italian borders (at 45.9227°N 7.0441°E) on around 3,700 metres (12,100 ft) altitude, near Mont Dolent.











Since Switzerland's accession to the Schengen Area in 2008, there have been no permanent passport controls along this border, even if there can be customs controls.
There are two airports near the border which have both Swiss and French passport and customs control, where the passengers can choose one of them. These are Basel-Mulhouse Airport which is located in France, but passengers can go to Switzerland without going through French border controls, and the Geneva Airport which is located in Switzerland, but passengers can go to France without going through Swiss border controls.

10 India Pakistan Border
The India and Pakistan Border, known locally as the International Border (IB), is an international border running between India and Pakistan that demarcates the Indian states and the four provinces of Pakistan. The border runs from the Line of Control (LoC), which separates the Indian controlled Kashmir from Pakistan controlled Kashmir, in the north, to Wagah, which partitioned the Indian Punjab state and Punjab Province of Pakistan, in the east. The Zero Point separates the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to Sindh province of Pakistan, in the south.









Drafted and created based upon the Radcliffe line in 1947, the border, which divides Pakistan and India from each other, traverses a variety of terrains ranging from major urban areas to inhospitable deserts.From the Arabian sea, the naval border follows the course of Manora Island of Pakistan to the course of the Mumbai Harbour, in the South east. Since independence of India and Pakistan the border has been a site of numerous conflicts and wars between each country, and is one of the most complex borders in the world.The border's total length is 2,900 km (1,800 mi), according to the figures given by the PBS; it is also one of the most dangerous borders in the world, based on an article written in the Foreign Policy in 2011.It can be seen from space at night due to the 150,000 flood lights installed by India on about 50 thousand poles.

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