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What is a Hybrid Mobile App?

Hybrid mobile apps are like any other apps you’ll find on your phone. They install on your device. You can find them in app stores. With them, you can play games, engage your friends through social media, take photos, track your health, and much more.
Like the websites on the internet, hybrid mobile apps are built with a combination of web technologies like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. The key difference is that hybrid apps are hosted inside a native application that utilizes a mobile platform’s WebView. (You can think of the WebView as a chromeless browser window that’s typically configured to run fullscreen.) This enables them to access device capabilities such as the accelerometer, camera, contacts, and more. These are capabilities that are often restricted to access from inside mobile browsers. Furthermore, hybrid mobile apps can include native UI elements in situations where necessary, as evidenced by Basecamp’s approach towards hybrid mobile app development.
It can be very difficult to tell how a mobile application is built. Hybrid mobile applications are no different. A well-written hybrid app shouldn’t look or behave any differently than its native equivalent. More importantly, users don’t care either way. They simply want an application that works well. Trying to figure out if a mobile application is hybrid or native is like trying to differentiate rare grape varieties of wine. Unless you’re a sommelier or someone who really cares about it, it’s not terribly important. What matters is that the wine tastes good. The same can be said for hybrid mobile applications; so long as the application does what it’s supposed to do, who really cares how it was built?
The time has never been better to learn mobile application development. For many app ideas, you don’t even need any prior native development knowledge. You can get started today with knowledge of HTML, CSS and JavaScript. Unlike native mobile development, mobile applications using web technologies can support many mobile platforms.
There are many tools and framework available to help you create Mobile applications. In this article, we’ll look at our Top 14

IONIC

Ion Screenshot
IONIC is one of the most promising HTML 5 mobile application frameworks. Built using SASS, it provides many UI components to help develop rich and interactive apps. It uses the JavaScript MVVM framework, AngularJS to power apps. Two-way data binding, interaction with backend services and APIs makes AngularJS a mobile developer’s common choice. With the coming release of AngularJS 2.0, focused on mobile, it’s sure to gain even more popularity.
The team at IONIC will soon be introducing an easier way to create IONIC apps with IONIC creator. This will be released soon and will have drag and drop functionality to get started with app development in minutes.
www.sitepoint.com have published several articles on Ionic, including getting started with mobile app development and getting started with firefox os game development.

Mobile Angular UI

Mobile Angular UI
Mobile Angular UI is an HTML 5 framework which uses bootstrap 3 and AngularJS to create interactive mobile apps.
The main features of Mobile AngularUI include:
  • Bootstrap 3
  • AngularJS
  • Bootstrap 3 mobile components such as switches, overlays and sidebars which are missing in normal bootstrap.
  • AngularJS modules such as angular-route, angular-touch and angular-animate
Responsive media queries are stripped out of bootstrap as separate files, you only need to include what you need. Mobile Angular UI doesn’t have any jQuery dependencies, all you need are some AngularJS directives to create awesome mobile user experiences.
Take a look at the Mobile Angular UI demo page to see it in action. If you want to dig deeper, I would recommend reading our article on getting started with Mobile Angular UI.

Intel XDK

Intel XDK
Intel XDK is a cross platform application tool developed by Intel. Getting started with Intel XDK is easy, all you need is to download their application which is free and available for Linux, Windows and Mac. It provides a number of templates to get started and supports a number of UI frameworks such as Twitter bootstrap, jQuery Mobile and Topcoat.
Intel XDK provides a live preview on the connected device whilst you are developing along side many other useful tools.
On a personal note, I think development using Intel XDK was the easiest. It uses a drag and drop approach, although it does create a lot of unnecessary code.
Sitepoint’s -Introduction to Intel XDK is a great tutorial to get started developing with the platform.

Appcelerator Titanium

Titanium
Appcelerator’s Titanium is an open source mobile application framework that provides an environment to create native apps for several mobile platforms
Titanium is a complete solution for creating hybrid mobile apps with all you need in one place. To get started with Titanium download Titanium studio. The Titanium SDK is equipped with a number of mobile platform APIs and Cloud service to use as an app backend. It comes with platform independent APIs which makes it easier to access phone hardware.
Titanium uses Alloy, a MVC framework to enable rapid development of mobile apps. Modules created using Alloy are easy to reuse across different apps, hence significantly reducing the development time and the lines of code.
Titanium studio comes with some code samples to get started and we hope to have a tutorial on SitePoint soon.

Sencha Touch

Sencha Touch
Sencha Touch is an HTML 5 mobile app framework for creating apps for several platforms including iOS, Android and Blackberry. It has been in existence for some years now and is popular among hybrid mobile application developers.
Sencha Touch scores highly against it’s competitors by providing a native look and feel across all of the platforms it supports.
Getting started with Sencha Touch isn’t that difficult but in order to get the best out of Sencha Touch, one needs to invest a considerable amount of time.
To get a feel of a Sencha Touch app, take a look at the samples provided on its official page. To get started developing using Sencha, read their official docs or our introductory tutorial from last year.

Kendo UI

Telerik’s Kendo UI is an HTML 5 framework for creating cross platform mobile applications. Kendo UI relies heavily on jQuery and has a number of jQuery based widgets.
Learning Kendo UI is not difficult, developers familiar with jQuery will find Kendo UI easy to learn. Kendo UI has open sourced most of Kendo UI’s toolset and JavaScript framework features. However most of the commonly used widgets are still under a commercial license.
To get started developing with Kendo UI, refer to the official documentation. They also have a number of video tutorials to help learn the framework.

PhoneGap

PhoneGap
PhoneGap is the odd one out in this list as it’s not a framework for creating an app, but for packaging and releasing an app. PhoneGap is based on the open source Cordova and is the commercial version owned by Adobe. With a dedicated support team, PhoneGap is popular amongst many mobile developers.
You can use any choice of JavaScript or UI frameworks to get started with PhoneGap. jQuery Mobile alongside KnockOut.jsor AngularJS is a nice combination. Once you are done with your code, PhoneGap takes it from there and wraps it based on the intended platform. Applications built using PhoneGap use a web view to render their content. PhoneGap has a minimal set of web APIs to access phone hardware features and it’s possible to write custom plugins to suit requirements.
Refer to the PhoneGap documentation to get started, (sitepoint.com)-.or Building a currency converter using PhoneGap is a good starting point.

Framework 7


Framework 7 leads the race among hybrid app frameworks in iOS mobile apps development space.

The main advantage of Framework 7 is that it empowers developers to build iOS and Android apps with just CSS, JavaScript and HTML, the technology that web developers already know. Framework 7 is so close to native iOS apps that it even provides features like swipe back, out of the box. There are many other ready to use UI elements including list views, media lists, side panels, modals etc., that can be used as is without the need to get into JavaScript.

Framework 7 is completely free and open source under MIT license. You can read more about Framework 7 at its official website - Framework7.

JQuery Mobile


jQuery suite is still in the game and holding the ground tight against the feature rich hybrid mobile app development frameworks like Ionic, Onsen UI and Framework 7. The die-hard jQuey fans community has built this minimalist jQuery Mobile package on top of solid jQueyr and jQuery UI foundation.

The focus of jQuery mobile is to empower developers to build web apps and mobile apps that run seamlessly and with unique user experience across mobiles, tablets and desktops. It doesn't focus much on providing native look and feel to apps for individual platforms like iOS or Android.

You can read more on jQuery Mobile at  - jquerymobile.com.

Mobile Angular UI


This one is for the fans of Bootstrap and Angular. With Mobile Angular UI, you get best of both Bootstrap 3 and Angular framework to build HTML5 mobile applications. Angular UI is more like an extension to Bootstrap 3 but without any dependencies to bootstrap js or jQuery. It utilizes fastclick.js and overthrow.js for smooth and better mobile experience.

Mobile Angular UI provides directives for building UI component like overlays, switches, sidebars, scrollable areas and absolute positioned navbars that don’t bounce on scroll. These essentially are the components that you find missing in Bootstrap 3 for building mobile apps.

Mobile Angular UI is available as open source and free to use under MIT license, you can get the source code at github - mobile-angular-ui.

Read more about Mobile Angular UI at official website- mobileangularui.com.

Famo.us


Famo.us is another powerhouse html5 apps development framework and targets to provide near native experience in hybrid apps. The main difference between famo.us and other hybrid html5 frameworks is that it focuses more on graphics rendering, 2d and 3d and hence is more suitable for games development.

Read more about Famo.us at official website - famous.org.

Monaca


Monaca is another commercial mobile app development platform with a huge list of products for managing end to end app development life cycle. Monaca features a cloud based IDE for developing hybrid mobile apps and lets you compile and publish to multiple platforms, utilizing Cordova.

The range of modules and products that Monaca offers is huge and i prefer to cover that in a separate article, keep watching for that and until then read more about Monaca at the official website - monaca.io.

Trigger.IO - The Dark Horse


I have already covered 10 of the best mobile app development frameworks but am finding it a little difficult to leave Trigger.io out from this list. Trigger.io takes a different approach and doesn't utilize Cordova for native access.

Trigger.io has its own platform for bridging the gap between html5 development and native access. They claim (Though I am still in the process of validating it) that it produces hybrid applications that have much better performance than Cordova based applications.

Trigger.io uses Forge JavaScript API for access to native functions like accelerometer and camera etc. Keep an eye on Trigger.io and read more about it at its official website - trigger.io.

App.js


app.js is a JavaScript library for creating mobile web apps. It’s lightweight and unlike other frameworks, doesn’t use AngularJS. It provides several custom themes and widgets. You can write the app using zepto or jQuery. A good starting point is An intro to App.js.

Conclusion

In this article, we discussed some of the best HTML 5 mobile app development frameworks. HTML 5 mobile development is evolving day by day and there are always new options emerging. What have been your favorite frameworks to use when developing a mobile app?

The prophecy was written 70 years ago.. and it’s absolutely mind-blowing!

Peter Konstantinov Deunov, also known as Beinsa Douno, born in 1886 and who later passed away in 1944, left a prophecy that he had obtained through a trance based state. The prophecy was therefore dated as 1944, a few days before his death in December that year. The prophecy Beinsa Douno left fits right into the times we are going through right now, in relation to the shift in consciousness, the earth changes and our golden age. Back then, Douno was aware and taught that we were moving into the age of Aquarius, as per the astrological age system.

The Prophecy



“During the passage of time, the consciousness of man traversed a very long period of obscurity. This phase which the Hindus call ‘Kali Yuga’, is on the verge of ending. We find ourselves today at the frontier between two epochs: that of Kali Yuga and that of the New Era that we are entering.

A gradual improvement is already occurring in the thoughts, sentiments and acts of humans, but everybody will soon be subjugated to divine Fire, that will purify and prepare them in regards to the New Era. Thus man will raise himself to a superior degree of consciousness, indispensable to his entrance to the New Life. That is what one understands by ‘Ascension’.

Some decades will pass before this Fire will come, that will transform the world by bringing it a new moral. This immense wave comes from cosmic space and will inundate the entire earth. All those that attempt to oppose it will be carried off and transferred elsewhere.

Although the inhabitants of this planet do not all find themselves at the same degree of evolution, the new wave will be felt by each one of us. And this transformation will not only touch the Earth, but the ensemble of the entire Cosmos.

The best and only thing that man can do now is to turn towards God and improve himself consciously, to elevate his vibratory level, so as to find himself in harmony with the powerful wave that will soon submerge him.

The Fire of which I speak, that accompanies the new conditions offered to our planet, will rejuvenate, purify, reconstruct everything: the matter will be refined, your hearts will be liberated from anguish, troubles, incertitude, and they will become luminous; everything will be improved, elevated; the thoughts, sentiments and negative acts will be consumed and destroyed.

Your present life is a slavery, a heavy prison. Understand your situation and liberate yourself from it. I tell you this: exit from your prison! It is really sorry to see so much misleading, so much suffering, so much incapacity to understand where one’s true happiness lies.

Everything that is around you will soon collapse and disappear. Nothing will be left of this civilization nor its perversity; the entire earth will be shaken and no trace will be left of this erroneous culture that maintains men under the yoke of ignorance. Earthquakes are not only mechanical phenomena, their goal is also to awaken the intellect and the heart of humans, so that they liberate themselves from their errors and their follies and that they understand that they are not the only ones in the universe.

Our solar system is now traversing a region of the Cosmos where a constellation that was destroyed left its mark, its dust. This crossing of a contaminated space is a source of poisoning, not only for the inhabitants of the earth, but for all the inhabitants of the other planets of our galaxy. Only the suns are not affected by the influence of this hostile environment. This region is called “the thirteenth zone”; one also calls it “the zone of contradictions”. Our planet was enclosed in this region for thousands of years, but finally we are approaching the exit of this space of darkness and we are on the point of attaining a more spiritual region, where more evolved beings live.

The earth is now following an ascending movement and everyone should force themselves to harmonize with the currents of the ascension. Those who refuse to subjugate themselves to this orientation will lose the advantage of good conditions that are offered in the future to elevate themselves. They will remain behind in evolution and must wait tens of millions of years for the coming of a new ascending wave.

The earth, the solar system, the universe, all are being put in a new direction under the impulsion of Love. Most of you still consider Love as a derisory force, but in reality, it is the greatest of all forces! Money and power continue to be venerated as if the course of your life depended upon it. In the future, all will be subjugated to Love and all will serve it. But it is through suffering and difficulties that the consciousness of man will be awakened.

The terrible predictions of the prophet Daniel written in the bible relate to the epoch that is opening. There will be floods, hurricanes, gigantic fires and earthquakes that will sweep away everything. Blood will flow in abundance. There will be revolutions; terrible explosions will resound in numerous regions of the earth. There where there is earth, water will come, and there where there is water, earth will come. God is Love; yet we are dealing here with a chastisement, a reply by Nature against the crimes perpetrated by man since the night of time against his Mother; the Earth.

After these sufferings, those that will be saved, the elite, will know the Golden Age, harmony and unlimited beauty. Thus keep your peace and your faith when the time comes for suffering and terror, because it is written that not a hair will fall from the head of the just. Don’t be discouraged, simply follow your work of personal perfection.

You have no idea of the grandiose future that awaits you. A New Earth will soon see day. In a few decades the work will be less exacting, and each one will have the time to consecrate spiritual, intellectual and artistic activities. The question of rapport between man and woman will be finally resolved in harmony; each one having the possibility of following their aspirations. The relations of couples will be founded on reciprocal respect and esteem. Humans will voyage through the different planes of space and breakthrough intergalactic space. They will study their functioning and will rapidly be able to know the Divine World, to fusion with the Head of the Universe.

The New Era is that of the sixth race. Your predestination is to prepare yourself for it, to welcome it and to live it. The sixth race will build itself around the idea of Fraternity. There will be no more conflicts of personal interests; the single aspiration of each one will be to conform himself to the Law of Love. The sixth race will be that of Love. A new continent will be formed for it. It will emerge from the Pacific, so that the Most High can finally establish His place on this planet.

The founders of this new civilization, I call them ‘Brothers of Humanity’ or also ‘Children of Love’. They will be unshakeable for the good and they will represent a new type of men. Men will form a family, as a large body, and each people will represent an organ in this body. In the new race, Love will manifest in such a perfect manner, that today’s man can only have a very vague idea.

The earth will remain a terrain favourable to struggle, but the forces of darkness will retreat and the earth will be liberated from them. Humans seeing that there is no other path will engage themselves to the path of the New Life, that of salvation. In their senseless pride, some will, to the end hope to continue on earth a life that the Divine Order condemns, but each one will finish by understanding that the direction of the world doesn’t belong to them.

A new culture will see the light of day, it will rest on three principal foundations: the elevation of woman, the elevation of the meek and humble, and the protection of the rights of man.

The light, the good, and justice will triumph; it is just a question of time. The religions should be purified. Each contains a particle of the Teaching of the Masters of Light, but obscured by the incessant supply of human deviation. All the believers will have to unite and to put themselves in agreement with one principal, that of placing Love as the base of all belief, whatever it may be. Love and Fraternity that is the common base! The earth will soon be swept by extraordinary rapid waves of Cosmic Electricity. A few decades from now beings who are bad and lead others astray will not be able to support their intensity. They will thus be absorbed by Cosmic Fire that will consume the bad that they possess. Then they will repent because it is written that “each flesh shall glorify God”.

Our mother, the earth, will get rid of men that don’t accept the New Life. She will reject them like damaged fruit. They will soon not be able to reincarnate on this planet; criminals included. Only those that possess Love in them will remain.

There is not any place on earth that is not dirtied with human or animal blood; she must therefore submit to a purification. And it is for this that certain continents will be immersed while others will surface. Men do not suspect to what dangers they are menaced by. They continue to pursue futile objectives and to seek pleasure. On the contrary those of the sixth race will be conscious of the dignity of their role and respectful of each one’s liberty. They will nourish themselves exclusively from products of the vegetal realm. Their ideas will have the power to circulate freely as the air and light of our days.

The words “If you are not born again” apply to the sixth race. Read Chapter 60 of Isaiah it relates to the coming of the sixth race, the Race of Love.

After the Tribulations, men will cease to sin and will find again the path of virtue. The climate of our planet will be moderated everywhere and brutal variations will no longer exist. The air will once again become pure, the same for water. The parasites will disappear. Men will remember their previous incarnations and they will feel the pleasure of noticing that they are finally liberated from their previous condition.

In the same manner that one gets rid of the parasites and dead leaves on the vine, so act the evolved Beings to prepare men to serve the God of Love. They give to them good conditions to grow and to develop themselves, and to those that want to listen to them, they say: “Do not be afraid! Still a little more time and everything will be all right; you are on the good path. May he that wants to enter in the New Culture study, consciously work and prepare.”

Thanks to the idea of Fraternity, the earth will become a blessed place, and that will not wait. But before, great sufferings will be sent to awaken the consciousness. Sins accumulated for thousands of years must be redeemed. The ardent wave emanating from On High will contribute in liquidating the karma of peoples. The liberation can no longer be postponed. Humanity must prepare itself for great trials that are inescapable and are coming to bring an end to egoism.

Under the earth, something extraordinary is preparing itself. A revolution that is grandiose and completely inconceivable will manifest itself soon in nature. God has decided to redress the earth, and He will do it! It is the end of an epoch; a new order will substitute the old, an order in which Love will reign on earth.”

Astronomers studying pulsars may have finally unravelled why these mysterious pulsating objects appear to send different kinds of signals into space – by tracking the immense cloud trails of their nebulae.

Thanks to images taken by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, a new analysis of two very contrasting pulsars shows that pulsars' energy emissions may only be visible to Earth from certain angles – which could explain a mystery that's puzzled scientists up until now.

Pulsars are a kind of neutron star – an extremely dense core of matter left over once a massive star has exploded in a supernova.

What sets pulsars apart from other neutron stars are their pulsating radio waveemissions – a tightly focused beam of electromagnetic radiation that rapidly rotates around the pulsar much like the light shone from a lighthouse.

While pulsars were long categorised by the emission of these radio waves, more recently researchers have found that some pulsars also generate a different kind of energy signal – gamma rays – and the distinction has puzzled astronomers for almost a decade.

34898-ataleoftwopu-1Geminga, artist's impression. Credit: Nahks Tr'Ehnl

"It's not fully understood why there are variations between different pulsars," says researcher Bettina Posselt from Pennsylvania State University.

"One of the main ideas here is that pulse differences have a lot to do with geometry – and it also depends on how the pulsar's spin and magnetic axes are oriented with respect to line of sight whether you see certain pulsars or not, as well as how you see them."

One of the ways scientists can study pulsars is by tracking what's called pulsar wind nebulae – clouds of energetic particles that form doughnut-shaped rings called tori, which stretch out into tail-like structures as they spin off from the rapidly rotating pulsar.

Thanks to the Chandra X-ray Observatory, scientists can now study these nebulae, which helps us understand the different kinds of magnetic activity that pulsars exhibit – and also why we only pick up certain emissions from them.

"This is one of the nicest results of our larger study of pulsar wind nebulae," says one of the team, physicist Roger W. Romani from Stanford University.

"By making the 3D structure of these winds visible, we have shown how one can trace back to the plasma injected by the pulsar at the centre."

Two very divergent kinds of pulsar wind nebulae can be seen in the pulsars Geminga – which is approximately 800 light-years from Earth – and BO355+54, which is about 3,300 light years away.

In the case of Geminga (shown above), you can see the pulsar has three distinct tails making up its nebulae. Of these, the two long tails are called lateral tails, and are thought to spin off from Geminga's magnetic poles.

These lateral tails stretch out for more than half a light-year from Geminga, while a third, shorter tail also emanates from the pulsar.

The researchers think the positioning of Geminga's poles is why we can only pick up gamma rays from the pulsar on Earth – but not radio emissions.

"The tails seem to tell us why that is," says Posselt. "For Geminga, we view the bright gamma ray pulses and the edge of the pulsar wind nebula torus, but the radio beams near the jets point off to the sides and remain unseen."

34898-ataleoftwopu-2

Top Left X-ray: NASA/CXC/PSU/B.Posselt et al; Infrared: NASA/JPL-Caltech. Top Right X-ray: NASA/CXC/GWU/N.Klinger et al; Infrared: NASA/JPL-Caltech. Illustrations by Nahks Tr'Ehnl.

By contrast, B0355+54 (pictured above alongside Geminga) has its radio waves angled at Earth, which is how we're able to detect it – even though we can't pick up its gamma rays.

"For B0355+54, a jet points nearly at us so we detect the bright radio pulses while most of the gamma-ray emission is directed in the plane of the sky and misses the Earth," says one of the team, Oleg Kargaltsev from George Washington University.

"This implies that the pulsar's spin axis direction is close to our line-of-sight direction and that the pulsar is moving nearly perpendicularly to its spin axis."


While there's still a lot to learn about pulsars, the new discoveries help explain why we've only picked up distinct emissions from these kinds of cosmic objects before – and lets researchers study particle physics in ways that would be impossible to replicate in a lab on Earth.

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